Today, while reading "The Way of Qigong" by Kenneth S Cohen, I came accross a great footnote that illustrates my point about the Three Levels perfectly. In the old days Chinese priests used to not only do Qigung excercises and related energy work to heal, but also danced, drummed, and prayed. These days while most Chinese embrace Chi healing, they consider prayer to be un-scientific. In the book Cohen muses that Chinese healers will soon be shocked as the western research into the effectiveness of prayer in healing slowly gets translated into Chinese.
While Qigung itself works on all three levels within the body, indeed Jing, Qi, and Shen are an excellent example of the levels themselves, the technique largely rests upon the energetic practices of level 2 supported by the material breathing and excercise of level 3. While meditation, certainly a practive belonging to level 1, is used, it is not as stressed. Prayer gets largely marginalized not because it doesnt work, but because it doesnt fit the model easily. Thus the danger of models.